Escolta Saturday Market

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It must be the history, the remaining turn-of-the-twentieth century architecture, or the dusty bits and pieces of memories romanticized by great grandparents that led a group of artists into reviving the vibrancy of Escolta, not as the country’s premier high street as it was in the 1900s but this time as an accessible and popular cultural and artsy center in good old downtown Manila.

The recent staging of the Escolta Saturday Market where vintage items were sold in what used to be the site of the fashionable Berg’s Department Store in the 1930s is an attempt to bring back old world Escolta in its heyday and perhaps the first step in making generations familiar of that forgotten place and time.

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But to say that we have forgotten about Escolta is an understatement. For one thing, our generation is not fortunate enough to live in that era when Escolta became the country’s classiest shopping destination. That’s why it is not surprising to learn from some people that they do not feel any connection or relevance when passing by this short thoroughfare in Manila today.

However, nostalgia can strike us when looking at old photos of Escolta. Its rows of opulent shops, which were actually traditional bahay-na-bato with sliding panels of capiz windows on the second floor and huge glass display windows at street level where all conceivable caprichos and overpriced imported luxuries were sold.

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The famous emporium La Estrella del Norte and La Puerta del Sol which marked the east and west entrances of the narrow thoroughfare, introduced the first bicycles, cameras, phonographs and the trendiest and most fashionable home furnishings to the biggest spenders of that time.

A good find in the Saturday market were the mugs with images of vintage cars and bicycles printed on them. This fittingly recalls when La Estrella del Norte brought in the first automobile in the country called a Richard, which was bought by a certain
Dr. Miciano –an affluent physician.

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La Puerta del Sol is said to have sold the finest European décor and household ware. In 1875, it introduced the term tulipan referring to gas lamps with tulip-shaped glass chimneys. In the 1920s and 1930s, Escolta shops selling all kinds of gas lamps made of glass were generically called tulipan. Just like in the Saturday market, everything for sale has been generically called pre-loved vintage items.

Other high end stores like H.E. Heacocks and Oceanic were known for the exquisite household items. While Fashionable clothes were displayed at Berg’s, quality leather and shoes were stocked at Hamilton Brown or Walkover Shoes.

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Escolta Saturday Market Calvo Museum

It was also in the twenties and the thirties when art nouveau and art deco design elements were incorporated in the architecture of Escolta’s landmark buildings like the Crystal Arcade, Capitol and Lyric Theaters, Calvo, Natividad, Burke, Regina, and Perez-Samanillo (First United Building). Some of these buildings are now gone and only be seen in old photos and in miniature models at the Calvo Museum.

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Pre-war Escolta only reigns in the memory of those who were fascinated by its grandeur. With the old glamor gone, the Escolta we know today is just a narrow street in Manila with decrepit art deco and art nouveau structures just waiting to be revitalized for adaptive reuse as cafés, restaurants, wineries, art galleries, art schools, culinary schools, creative workshop venues, exhibition spaces for art fairs and trade shows, boutiques, vintage and antique shops, bookstores, music stores, graphic design studios, photography studios, band rehearsal studios, etc. etc.

The successful staging of the Escolta Saturday Market is an inspiration to those who have all of the above in mind. Our generation can now start looking forward to a time and period when an accessible and popular, still old world yet artsy Escolta is thriving and pulsating once again in good old downtown Manila just like during its ‘forgotten’ heyday.

Sta. Cruz Manila

Centuries ago English kings and queens had to ask permission from the mayor of London before entering the ancient city. In 18th century Manila, governor-generals left their cavalry escort in Calle Escolta and walked the bridge across the estero to Plaza Sta. Cruz where the principales of Binondo would be waiting to accompany the viceroy of Spain to their wealthy district.

Plaza Sta. Cruz was to serve as neutral ground for a historic event when the British Surrendered the Key of the City of Manila to Don Simon de Anda in 1764.

The historic district of Sta. Cruz started as a Jesuit mission where Governor-General Alonso Fajardo founded the Colegio de San Ildefonso, on the site of the present church in the 1720s. From this developed the parish and borough of the Sta. Cruz, which the Jesuits managed until their expulsion in 1768.

Enshrined in the 17th century Sta. Cruz Church is the Nuestra Señora del Pilar whose feast is celebrated every third Sunday of October. In the olden days, the fiesta was the talk of the town for the vanity of its women, of whom it is said that they marched in the festive procession of their patroness covered with jewels from head to foot.

Sta. Cruz Church is surrounded by three open spaces; Plaza Sta. Cruz in front, Plaza Goiti at the rear, and a wide street on the right leading to Calle Escolta. In the 1900s, these areas came to be known as downtown Manila. The centerpiece of the Plaza Sta. Cruz is the 19th century Carriedo Fountain, which honors the legacy of philanthropist Don Francisco Carriedo y Perredo who left in his will the establishment of the first waterworks system for Manila.

On Plaza Goiti stood Monte de Piedad, where businessmen were said to hang around its porch to catch the latest news before it broke. It was in same bank where Manuel Quezon worked as a clerk before starting his political career.

Plaza Goiti, was also the city’s transportation network, where the tranvia ferried commuters to old Manila‘s major thoroughfares. Named after Martin de Goiti, the busy plaza was renamed Plaza Lacson in honor of the city’s first elected mayor, Arsenio H. Lacson.

Across the street from the right side of the church is Calle Escolta, the country’s premier shopping destination at that time. It was home to high-end stores like La Estrella del Norte and Puerta del Sol which marked the east and west entrances of the narrow thoroughfare. Fine household items can be purchased at H.E. Heacocks and Oceanic. While Fashionable clothes were displayed at Berg’s, quality leather and shoes were stocked at Hamilton Brown or Walkover Shoes. Botica Boie, mixed potent medicines and served the best soda and clubhouse sandwich in town.

Sta. Cruz was then already noted for its heavy traffic and thriving commerce even during the Spanish period. But the heavy traffic was on the muelles and esteros, where rafts coming from trading ships anchored in Manila Bay and cascoes that rowed from provinces unload their produce and other goods on the Muelles along Pasig River and on drop off points along esteros at Sibakong and at the foot of Escolta bridge.

The esteros that crisscrossed through and around Sta. Cruz were clean and fast-flowing then. This afforded the chief means of transportation, not only around the borough, but also to other districts like Binondo.

The major event in the district’s pre-war history was the opening of Avenida Rizal. The demolition of the all the houses that stood between Dulumbayan and Calle Salcedo caused the exodus of the district’s old time residents.

World War II gravely devastated downtown Manila. Several buildings around Plaza Sta. Cruz, along Escolta, and newly opened Avenida Rizal were heavily charred and pockmarked during the Liberation of Manila. The old Sta. Cruz Church was completely destroyed. But the image of the Virgen del Pilar was hidden in the vault of the Philippine National Bank on Escolta during the last months of the war.

- Feast Day of the Virgen del Pilar de Manila

Escolta

As we emerged from the gate at right side of Sta. Cruz Church, two impressive buildings attracted us to cross the bridge spanning Estero de la Reina. The majestic buildings, one with fancy Art Deco elements and another in an elegant Beaux-Arts architecture stood face-to-face each other as if competing in grandness at the entrance of Manila’s historic high street -Calle Escolta.

Manila’s Historic High Street

Money and power once passed the old Calle Escolta. During the Spanish period, the Governor-General with his official escorts or escolta (hence the name) passed by this short stretch lined by one storey Chinese shops called camarines from Malacanang on his way to his office in Intramuros.

At the time when Jose Rizal’s Crisostomo Ibarra strolled old Binondo, cobblestones imported from Hongkong  paved the historic thoroughfare. The old rows of camarines has been replaced by glorified bahay-na-bato adorned with Neo-Classical elements like Greek columns and caryatids. In the last years of the Spanish Empire, only European establishments were permitted to do business in Escolta.

In the 1900’s, Escolta was the country’s premier shopping destination. It was home to high-end stores like La Estrella del Norte and Puerta del Sol which marked the east and west entrances of the narrow thoroughfare, respectively. Fine household items can be purchased at H.E. Heacocks and Oceanic. While Fashionable clothes were displayed at Berg’s, quality leather and shoes were stocked at Hamilton Brown or Walkover Shoes. Botica Boie, mixed potent medicines and served the best soda and clubhouse sandwich in town.

However, it was in the 1960’s when the prestige of Escolta gradually faded while pristine Makati and urbanized Quezon City were dramatically emerging as the country’s commercial and business districts.

Art Deco Perez-Samanillo Building

By the second half of the 2oth century, the jazzed-up architectural style known as Art Deco manifested in the Philippines. In Escolta, the First United Building, formerly Perez-Samanillo Building is one of the few surviving specimens of the Art Deco age in the city.

Built in 1928 by Andres Luna de San Pedro, the pink Art Deco building was once described as Manila’s foremost business address. It prides itself in enticing would be tenants of maximized space, abundant lighting and ventilation and a large amount of architectural and decorative elements.

While looking at the building’s awesome façade, our eyes were drawn at its central bay that rises towards a crowning block rendered with a bass relief of the Creation.

Beaux-Arts Regina Building

Facing the Art Deco Perez-Samanillo Building, in graceful white Beaux-Arts architecture is the Regina Building . Built in 1934 also attributed to Juan Luna’s son – Andres Luna de San Pedro, it was originally designed as a three-storey commercial building. When the de Leon family bought the building from the Roxases, a fourth floor was added by architect Fernando Ocampo -founder of the UST College of Architecture.

The senate staff of the late Senator Vicente Madrigal (grandfather of Ms. Jamby Madrigal) rented a suite in Regina Building while on the same floor across the hall was the office Madrigal Shipping, then the world’s largest tramp steamship company.

Like giant sentinels, the Perez-Samanillo and Regina buildings stood the test of time guarding the Sta. Cruz entrance of Escolta.

Landmark Buildings

The Burke Building with its simple balance lines was the location of the first elevator in the Philippines. The building was named after the cardiologist William J. Burke who introduced and installed the first electrocardiograph in the country.

International style expressed by the prevalent use of sun baffles were represented by the  Madrigal, the Panpisco and by the old Philippine National Bank buildings ( The old PNB was the site of Crystal Arcade, the first fully air-conditioned commercial building in the country).

Although marred by tangled electrical cables, there were more eye-catching architectural masterpieces that greeted us as we walked deeper down the street such as the charming Natividad Building which evokes a French café in a Parisian neighborhood and the Calvo Building with its stunning beaux-arts architecture.

Calvo Museum and the First Kapuso

The 1933 Calvo Building is home to a little known museum in Escolta. The museum was recently put together to showcase a bygone era through old photographs, turn-of-the-century newsprints, detailled scale models of Escolta’s architectural landmarks and an impressive Vintage Bottle Collection.

The Escolta museum also has information revealing the history that took place on its fourth floor.

When American war correspondent Robert Stewart sent the first signal of radio station DZBB from a makeshift studio in the Loreto F. de Humedes, Inc.office (later Republic Broadcasting System), he has already given birth to country’s largest television network -the Kapuso Network -GMA 7.

Capitol Theater

There were two theater cinemas along Escolta -Lyric and Capitol. Both high class movie houses brought the glitz and glitter of Hollywood to Manila. Lyric Theater was an Art Deco masterpiece by Pablo Antonio while Capitol Theater was designed by Juan Nakpil. Sadly, the former  has been demolished while the latter has long seized operation, abandoned for decades and is in dire state.

As we walked across the street from Calvo Building, Capitol Theater stood majestically amidst its decaying and dilapidated shell. Built in the 1935, this Art Deco jewel once had mounted on its balcony a wall mural by Filipino modernist Vitorio Edades.

On the face of its western tower were bas-reliefs attributed to the Italian atelier Francesco Ricardo Monti. These relieves show Filipina (one holding a mask and another holding a lyre) in traje de mestiza frame by evocative Art Deco lines and curves.

Plaza Moraga

The entire stretch of Escolta is less than a kilometer long with both ends extending into impressive open spaces. We exited Escolta and stepped into Plaza Moraga.

Named after the first parish priest of Paco, Fray Fernando de Moraga, the plaza was the site of the first ice cream parlor in the country. Clarke’s Café became a sensation when it opened in 1899. Although, like all other establishments in Escolta, the phenomenal ice cream parlor has closed down except for Savory Restaurant which still serves their signature savory chicken.

From the foot of Jones Bridge we walked towards the stately Chaco Building (now owned by Philtrust) and slipped under the Filipino-Chinese Friendship Arch to begin the Binondo Heritage Trail Walking Tour. But that’s another story.

Escolta Museum’s Vintage Bottle Collection

  

  

Unknown to some people is the Escolta Museum. The museum is located at the mezzanine of the Calvo Building along Escolta Street. It has a permanent exhibit entitled “Bote’t, Diyaryo, Extraordinaryo.”  

 

 

Enclosed in glass shelves are vintage bottles, old photographs and old newspaper articles that perhaps showcase Escolta and its vicinity to be the Philippines’ Western Emporium at the turn-of-the-century. Also on display are scale models of existing and non-existing buildings located along this short thoroughfare along the Pasig River. 

 

 

 

The product and services offered in Escolta are highlighted in an exhibit of newspaper advertisements. The advertisements are mostly from Spanish to the late American Period. These ads feature imported household products to overwhelmingly agrarian Philippines then.  

 

   

 

The ads revealed that Filipinos of that era has imported everything from phonographs to sliver spoons, from shoes to empty bottles!

 

 

The Vintage Bottle Collection

  

 

Most of the bottles surfacing in Manila were used from the late 19th century until the pre-World War II era. From 1917 to 1933, empty bottles and jars made up of one third of imported glassware reaching the Philippines including tableware, mirrors, window and plate glass, eyeglasses and lamp chimneys. 

 

 

According to Felice Prudente-Sta. Maria, these bottle collectibles were partly the result of conscientious bottle recycling prompted by the lack of local bottle makers. Housewives had to present containers when purchasing cooking oil, kerosene, vinegar, fish sauce, carabao milk, locally distilled liquor and a host of other liquids.

 

Dark green bottles usually held gin or the one popular anise wine. One version is stamped La Tondeña. 

 

 

Like their European counterparts, Manila druggists displayed apothecaries with colored water in their windows and sold patent medicines. They came in cheaply made amber, aquamarine, green or clear bottles stamped with brands and cities of origin. 

 

 

Cobalt blue bottles that held poisons or acids, essences, and light-sensitive compounds meant strictly for external use, eventually became containers for laxatives, salts, and even an archaic fragrance called Blue Waltz bottled along the Pasig River. 

 

 

In the 1800s, charged and soda waters were the rage due to the rising health consciousness as a result of earthquake tolls, cholera and other epidemics. Sta. Maria noted that the bottle-capped beverage was introduced in the early 1900s by a Japanese drink called Tansan. The company left bomb-shaped bottles embossed with its brand name that remains the local word for bottle cap. 

 

 

However, not all bottles are glass. Beer came in thick, cream colored ceramic containers that sometimes sport broad golden brown bands across the rim and shoulders. They were used well into the late 1800s by Scottish and English breweries. Previous beverages like rum, ginger-beer and whisky were also stored in clay bottles, a practice that continued to the 20th century. 

 

 

Philippine glassmaking only began in 1937 when San Miguel Brewery set up the first bottling plant in Philippines. Its initial product was a tall. Slim, moss green beer bottle. Previously the firm’s containers came from Hongkong, then Japan.

 

I appreciate the effort of those who put up this museum. Not only that the exhibit provides visual details about the architectural structures that once stood along Escolta, it also gives its visitors a glimpse of the preferences, lifestyle and taste of the Filipino during that era.

 

Information source: Felice Prundente-Sta. Maria, Household Antiques and Heirlooms

Savory Chicken Story

   

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In 1950, the Ting brothers put up a panciteria in Quiapo. The panciteria served only lomi until the brothers decided to expand the variety of their menu to meet the rising popularity of their restaurant.  

A special recipe for chicken and gravy was created which became popular among customers who would come to dine in their small restaurant. The special chicken recipe was famous for its tenderness and flavorful juicy taste.  

 Soon, the Savory Chicken House opened its first branch in Escolta.

 

Published in: on February 6, 2008 at 11:41 am  Leave a Comment  
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